Some segments of the PMA may be associated with the processes of tectonic changes near the Antarctic - Scotia paleo-plate boundary, as well as processes in the areas of paleorifts forming. At the same locality, we discovered numerous accumulations of titanosaurian eggs, likely related to the new taxa. I argue that this index more fully identifies the optimal environmental conditions for these two types of agricultural production, and I show that it serves as a robust predictor of local land inequality in the year 1920. Our main objectives are Las unidades estratigráficas se adelgazan fuertemente, tal que los afloramientos del Cretácico son sensiblemente menores en dirección norte y el Paleógeno prácticamente no se registra. 3. These arid-adapted communities were widespread during the Late Neogene, but their origin in Patagonia can be traced back to the Paleogene. With newly compiled data for Asian eomyids, we also compare genus-level diversity trends through time among North America, Europe, and Asia. Grassland ecosystems flourish under a wide range of climatic regimes but are extensive in the dry interiors of continents, in subtropical and tropical savannas, in the Arctic and above the alpine treeline. The Middle Magdalena Valley starting from Cimitarra Fault system moving towards the north exhibit particular geologic characteristics allowing a genetic separation in tow sectors, North and South. This book contains 44 chapters dedicated to the discovery and study of North American Tertiary mammals. By the latest Late Cretaceous, there is an evident reduction in size in saltasaurids and rinconsaurians across South America, which may be related to fluctuations in climate 75 and vegetation. Associated vegetative remains are also suggestive of grasses, but are not well enough preserved for an unequivocal identification. However, as they are based solely on extant species their ability to accurately depict past events can be questioned. 1,445 kB (1,480,487 bytes). We highlight the important role that studies of mammals have played in the advancement of macroecological theories and patterns, and note that both mammalogy and macroecology are richer because of this linkage. occidental de la Cordillera Oriental, sobre la que se acumulan discordantemente los sedimentos Cretácicos del VMM. but Paleogene to Neogene main phases of magmatic activity also. These fossil specimens show greatest anatomical similarity to the organ genus Illicioxylon Gottwald and extant members of the Illiciaceae. Geologic mapping and ithostratigraphic revision, redescription, and redefinition of the White River, Arikaree, and Ogallala groups and the Quaternary Series in Nebraska and South Dakota. Fossils from Chile show us that the first real grassland communities began to spread around just over 30 million years ago. With them followed numerous ancient rodents, for a while the main herbivores of these new ecosystems. 2006] ANDERSON: EVOLUTION AND ORIGIN OF GRASSLANDS 627 mains (Robertson et al. Xerophytic formations would have occupied coastal salt marshes and pockets in inland areas. The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. For more information go to www.neclime.de Despite data standardizations limited with respect to potential biases in the fossil record, we found that the Asian eomyid diversity closely follows ecological shifts induced by climate changes. This structure is unique among the flowering plants. American Journal of Botany 78 (7) :1010-1014. It is also associated with lower levels of development, as measured by the local Human Development Index (HDI) for the year 2000. Spatial heterogeneity of the various segments of PMA can also be associated with a variety of depth, power and magnetic susceptibility of individual units that form the source of regional anomalies. Because of limitations of conventional morphological and geochemical proxies, identification of C 4 grasses in the fossil record is difficult. We conducted a multilayer approach, comparing diversification rates among squirrel lineages depending on their degree of biome specialisation, biogeographic realm occupancy, locomotion adaptations, and presence in mountainous regions. Awl and policeman skippers (Hesperiidae: Coeliadinae) are disjunctly distributed with some genera endemic to the Afrotropics and others restricted to the Oriental and Australian regions. Reason why, it is possible to visualize its effects over the discordant boundaries. Formation and development of the grabens was controlled by tensional normal faults, characterized by steep dip in the upper parts and gentle dip in the lower parts of the fault planes. Here, simulation models based on neutral processes are used to explore immigration and extinction scenarios to assist with interpretation of LTT plots generated from molecular clock age estimates for a nearly complete set of extant New Zealand vascular plant genera. Our impact on grasses has been extensively studied; see, for example, Glémin, S. and Bataillon, T. 2009. The convergent morphological changes reconstructed for chinchillids and cavioids, related to the consumption of fibrous items, can be interpreted as being triggered by the strong modifications in the floras of South America initiated during the global cooling event at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (Prothero, 1994;Barreda & Palazzesi, 2007; ... Woodburne et al. Morphological analysis of the fossil representatives allowed a better understanding of the timing of trait acquisitions during the evolutionary history of caviomorphs and its relationship with global and regional palaeoenvironmental changes. Both the Nearctic lineages and the terrestrial-adapted lineages showed high speciation rates, highlighting the fact that that major evolutionary episodes may produce confounding effects in state-dependent diversification models. In Asia, the first find of an eomyid rodent was reported almost one century after the first studies of the family Eomyidae in North America and Europe. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution. We used geometric morphome, In the Cenozoic, a series of faulted, downwarped basins developed in the North China Platform. The evidence from our three complementary analyses is consistent with the hypothesis that evolutionary selection for C4 photosynthesis requires open environments, but we find an equal likelihood of C4 evolutionary origins in mesic, arid and saline habitats. Grassland plants evolved under the influence of periodic droughts, frequent burning, and grazing animals and are adapted to all three (Gleason 1922, Anderson 1990).This adaptation for grasses is manifested in their ability to die down to underground organs and only expose dead tops above ground (Gleason 1922). The structure of the living Patagonian flora, dominated by the steppe, is a direct consequence of past climatic and tectonic events. The formation and evolution of the Cenozoic depressions and grabens of the North China Platform was influenced by extension and faulting of the crust resulting from uplift of the upper mantle. the evolution of grasses. Copyright 2000 Annals of Botany Company. Volume 1: terrestrial carnivores, ungulates, and ungulatelike mammals, NECLIME - Neogene Climate Evolution in Eurasia, Geologic mapping and lithostratigraphic revision, Alliance 1 x 2 USGS Quadangle, Nebraska, 3D Shape Evolution in Grass Silica Short Cell Phytoliths: Taxonomic Patterns in Bambusoideae, The characteristics of cenozoic sedimentary basins in the North China platform. El Sinclinal de Nuevo Mundo, estructura aflorante al sur de la prolongación de la Falla de Cimitarra, muestra una excelente exposición de las rocas del Cretácico y Cenozoico, de ahí la localización de la mayor parte de las secciones tipo aplicables al norte y al sur. El Basamento en la parte más norte de este sector son las rocas grenvillianas del Neis de San Lucas, prolongación del Neis de Bucaramanga y están suprayacidas en contacto discordante por sedimentos de las Formaciones Sudán y Morrocoyal del Jurásico inferior. The gap at intermediate body sizes did not appear in North America until approximately 40 Ma (Alroy 1998;Lyons and Wagner 2009;Smith 2010, 2013). The structure is bounded toward the north east by Bucaramanga’s fault system and it is affected by the latter in different episodes, at Cretaceous top, Middle Eocene and Neogene. Drought, Fire, and Grazing Animals. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2445181?seq=3#page_scan_tab_contents 2011-05-30 00:00:00 The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earthâ s dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. Here we report on a partial skull and isolated horn core material of the boselaphin bovid Miotragocerus monacensis Stromer von Reichenbach, 1928 from the late Miocene hominid locality Hammerschmiede in southern Germany (HAM). Formation were accumulated and intrude rocks such as the Batolito de San Lucas and others localized on the Bucaramangas’s fault system eastern margin. We suggest that this pattern is not dictated by differences in the quality of the fossil record and is related to the expansion of drier habitats over large areas of Asia. 2005). is suitable for comparison with modern grassland ecosystems, but needs to be developed for past grasslands, as has begun with pollen assemblages using L12 modeled biomes (Levavasseur et al., 2012). https://www.jstor.org/stable/2445181?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Various biotic and abiotic factors have been proposed to have an impact on mammal diversification, such as climatic and tectonic changes, the acquisition of new traits, and expansion into new ecosystems or landmasses. We generated the most complete phylogeny of squirrels to date, encompass- ing almost 80% of the extant species, and applied multiple and binary state-dependent diversification models. Grasslands may have been present in Africa since Miocene times, but the extent and distribution of grassland ecosystems during that epoch A growing body of work suggests that the patterns and drivers of C 4 grassland expansion were considerably more complex than originally assumed. My instrument is an index quantifying the suitability of local climatic conditions for plantation versus smallholder agriculture. By 8 MYA, tall grassland ecosystems with deep calcareous soils expanded into the humid regions of North America, Africa, and Asia. Morphological changes occurring in the alveolar and muscular functional units were moderately associated. Given the central role that the grasses (Poaceae) play on Earth today, we ask: These areas containing arid-adapted floras would have arisen in Patagonian inland regions, in a generally wet continent. South American titanosaurians have been central to the study of the evolution of Cretaceous sauropod dinosaurs. However, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic disturbances are challenging the sustainability of the QTP’s grassland ecosystems in the era of global change. annurevearth040809152402.pdf PDF document, The stratigraphic units strongly reduce their thicknesses in such way that Cretaceous outcrops are very limited to moving north and Paleogene is almost absent. In the grasses, only one locule and one ovule ever form. In contrast, grassland species have an extensive fibrous root system, with grasses often accounting for 60-80% of the biomass carbon in this ecosystem. Arid-loving taxa have not been recorded in abundance. Expansion of these xerophytic taxa, coupled with extinctions of megathermal/nonseasonal elements, would have been associated with both tectonic and climatic forcing factors, led to the development of aridity and extreme seasonality. 70 million years ago. Although diversification drivers in campos rupestres remain a matter of debate, the Pleistocene refugium hypothesis (PRH) is often adopted as the most plausible explanation for their high diversity. The expansion of graminoid genera from 15 Ma is consistent with the Miocene appearance of widespread grasslands in Australia, ... 10). While these studies were ... clined and there was an explosive evolution of grasses and forbs (Cerling et al. By modelling the palaeo-range of campos rupestres based on the distribution of 1123 species of vascular plants endemic to the Espinhaço Range and using climate and edaphic variables, we projected a virtually constant suitable area for campos rupestres across the last glacial cycle. Here we use the term grassland, or savanna grassland, for tropical ecosystems domi-nated by C 4 grasses (Sarmiento, 1984; Cerling, 1992), not edaphic, or wet grasslands characterized by water-logged conditions. It is therefore classically viewed as an adaptation to open, arid conditions. Disjunct distributions of clades between the Afrotropics and the Oriental regions are testament to these changes. The Mundo Nuevo syncline outcropping structure south of Cimitarra’s fault system extension,it’s an excellent location for studding the outcropping Cretaceous and Cenozoic sediments, reason why most of the type locations for these sections were located in the north and south of it. The magnetic sources of PMA along the AP margin were formed during not only Cretaceous. Most notably, the maximum Oligocene Marine Transgression (27-22 Ma), when at least 85% of the current landmass was inundated, isn't clearly registered. The sedimentary sequences were intruded by alkali-basalts and tholeiites. "I'm interested in how mammalian species might develop grassland-specific traits in ecosystems that are constantly shifting," says Yeakel. The gap at intermediate body sizes did not appear in North America until approximately 40 Ma (Alroy 1998;Lyons and Wagner 2009;Smith 2010, 2013). Other forms of vegetation such as trees are rare in grasslands because they are not suited to thrive in the grassland’s dry environment. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not … ABSTRACT of research studies of grassland ecosystems with a focus on the Central Grassland of North America. The origin of crown Coeliadinae skippers is estimated in Indomalaya during the late Eocene ca. ASSEMBLY OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME: CONTINENT-SPECIFIC PATTERNS The evolutionary history of grasslands can be broken down into several distinct stages: (a) the Paleogene appearance of C3 open-habitat grasses; (b) the Paleogene appearance of C4 open-habitat grasses; (c) the mid-late Cenozoic emergence of open, C3 grass-dominated habitats; and finally, in some regions, (d ) the late … The field of macroecology has made many contributions to our understanding of mammalian ecology and evolution through its use of big data and the examination of statistical patterns that emerge. "New fossil provide the earliest unequivocal evidence of grasses..." The evolution of grasses using C 4 photosynthesis and their sudden rise to ecological dominance 3 to 8 million years ago is among the most dramatic examples of biome assembly in the geological record. 36 million years ago, with subsequent Oligocene colonisation events toward the Australian region and the Afrotropics. USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender. A synthesis of grass evolutionary biology with grassland ecosystem science will further our knowledge of the evolution of traits that promote dominance in grassland systems and will provide a new context in which to evaluate the relative importance of C 4photosynthesis in … However, once the pathway has arisen, evolutionary transitions into arid habitats occur at higher rates in C4 than C3 clades. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems Ströömberg, Caroline A.E. Eomyids emphasize the paleogeographic importance of Asia in considering intercontinental dispersal events of small mammals. Although the gap appeared prior to the spread of grasslands (Stromberg 2011), the global climate had begun to cool (Zachos et al. Inequality primarily affects the HDI through shorter life expectancies and lower incomes. Coeliadinae skippers are almost exclusively dicot feeders and were likely extirpated as grasslands became dominant, resulting in the present-day disjunct distribution of these butterflies. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2445181?seq=2#page_scan_tab_contents nov. is placed in synonymy with Coeliades to accommodate the new phylogeny. 1997, Ehler-inger et al. Megathermal angiosperms of the Rubiaceae, Combretaceae, Sapindaceae, Chloranthaceae, and Arecaceae occurred mainly during the Late Oligocene. The Old-World Tropics encompass many unique biomes and associated biotas shaped by drastic climate and geological changes throughout the Cenozoic. As the ovule develops the outer integument fuses with the inner ovary wall to form the distinctive fruit of the grasses, known as the grain or caryopsis. The biome specialist lineages showed the highest speciation rates, suggesting a major role of bioclimatic specialisation on macroevolutionary patterns. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems. Under this biogeographic model of diversification, the long-term fragmentation of campos rupestres combined with recurrent extinctions after genetic drift and sporadic events of adaptive radiation may provide an explanation for the current diversity and endemism in the Espinhaço Range. Interestingly, the coordinated evolution of these two functional units was decoupled in the clade of extant abrocomids. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. Nevertheless, palynological studies indicate that there is no evidence of dominant grasslands until the Late Miocene (Barreda & Palazzesi, 2007; ... 1). These branches of PMA formed in the Early Cretaceous in structures, separated by a fault zone. The large depressions are filled mainly by paralic lake sediments which are the most important oil-producing beds in the Cenozoic of the eastern part of China. Caviomorph rodents constitute a highly diverse clade of Neotropical mammals. that depend on them. This underground biomass can extend several meters below the surface and store abundant carbon into the soil, resulting in … It is a compendium of over 100 years work and gives detailed information of the distribution in time and space of each species at fossil localities. Therefore, such crops are uniquely suited to cooler or drier environments: These environments can thus be considered ideal for smallholder agriculture. The remaining chapters are devoted to a particular family or order and include a discussion of anatomical features, systematics, and palaeobiology. Grasslands cover more than 40% of the continents and vitally influences global climate, geochemical cycling, and the animals (including humans!) The tectonic evolution of the two-large depressions can be subdivided into two stages: (1) the faulting stage of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene, when series of parallel grabens and uplifts were formed; and (2) the downwarping stage (Neogene to Quaternary) when two large depressions were formed. In this review, I summarize the results of more than fifty years of research studies of grassland ecosystems with a focus on the Central Grassland of North America. Reconstructions of paleoclimate patterns in Eurasia: next to quantitative, proxy-based climate reconstruction, NECLIME works on processes behind the data and hence Neogene climate system modelling approaches on Neogene Eurasian and global climate including atmospheric and ocean circulation. Since the Oligocene, the expanding dominance of grasses has led to a reduction in forested vegetation, has transformed the herbivore faunas and their associated predators and has dramatically increased the frequency of fire. Edwards et al. These depressions and grabens formed during Late Cretaceous, Early Paleogene and Early Neogene. “The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo.” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 207: 399-420. Magnetic anomalies and the features of geodynamic development of the Antarctic Peninsula continental... Illicioxylon, an Element of Gondwanan Polar Forests? grasses account for >25% of global primary productivity and dominate tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperate grassland ecosystems. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2445181?seq=5#page_scan_tab_contents 1997). The relationship between climatic change and human evolution can be framed in terms of three major hypotheses. The large depressions located in the eastern part of China are the North China Depression and the northern Jiangsu Depression. Evolution of grasses and grassland ecosystems. The 3D objects produced during this study will contribute to a family wide digital reference collection for use by paleobotanists and grass taxonomists worldwide. A modern version of the long-held savanna hypothesis posits that the expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa was driven by global climatic change and led to the divergence of hominins from the apes and to the origin of the Homo clade. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select The data suggest that, towards the end of the Cretaceous, this clade spread throughout southern South America. Age dating information support evidence of big magnitude igneous events covering up to Upper Jurassic. We describe two new Late Cretaceous titanosaurians from Quebrada de Santo Domingo (La Rioja, Argentina), which help to fill a gap between these main areas of the continent. PDF document, (3) Late Oligocene-Early Miocene floras were characterized by the occurrence of shrubby-herbaceous elements belonging to Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, Ephedraceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae. I construct this index using information on the growing conditions of crops within certain plant taxonomies that are more biologically suited for smallholder or plantation production. In many cases the detected ecologi-cal importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Abstract We conclude that long-term diversification dynamics in campos rupestres are mainly driven by selection, while most endemic diversity is ephemeral, extremely fragile and mainly driven by drift. The Cenozoic sedimentary fill of the large depressions differs from the smaller grabens. Spikelets and inflorescence fragments with included pollen from the Paleocene/Eocene Wilcox Formation in western Tennessee have a suite of diagnostic characters that limits their affinities to Poaceae. Grasslands are open areas of land where grasses or grasslike plants are the dominant species. 2003, NECLIME is an international network since 1999 focusing on paleoclimatic patterns through time and space including interactions between paleogeography, vegetation and fauna combined with modelling. It is possible that the total anomaly name (PMA) can formally integrate anomalies of different ages and origin. Origins of grasses and grasslands •Review articles: –C. In the … Four major supported stages in vegetation turnovers are recognized: (1) Paleocene and Early Eocene floras were rainforest-dominated, including many angiosperms with warm-temperate affinities (e.g., palms, Juglandaceae, Casuarinaceae). Es por esto que el SNM en su flanco oriental se constituye en la exposición que abarca extensa información referencial y a partir de ella la caracterización del sector norte. With significant genus turnover, model simulations yield smooth exponential and linear semi-log LTT plots. Our comparative dating exercise casts doubt on the assignment of the fossil Protocoeliades kristenseni as a derived Coeliadinae and suggests, along with our biogeographic estimation, a split of Coeliadinae from the rest of skippers in the Palaeocene ca. Besides the cranium, we describe further isolated horn core material from both the HAM 5 horizon (11.62 Ma) and for the first time the HAM 4 horizon (11.44 Ma), being the stratigraphic youngest record of this species. — Also, methodologies and classification systems have been developed within NECLIME providing a sound basis for future work. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. They are recorded since at least the late Middle Eocene and have a long and complex evolutionary history. The vast majority of New Zealand vascular plant genera derive from trans-oceanic dispersal, and LTT plots generated from divergence dates and fossil data indicate consistently high turnover. Using µCT analysis, we demonstrate the unique morphology of the basicranium of M. monacensis, compared to closely related boselaphin bovids like M. panno niae Kretzoi, 1941, M. valenciennesi Gaudry, 1861 and Tragoportax rugosifrons Schlosser, 1904, all from the late Miocene. With extraordinary levels of plant diversity and endemism, the Brazilian campos rupestres across the Espinhaço Range have a species/area ratio 40 times higher than the lowland Amazon. (4) Middle-Late Miocene records show an increasing diversity and abundance of xerophytic-adapted taxa, including Asteraceae, Chenopodiaceae, and ConvolvulaceaeCressa/Wilsonia. I first exploit variation in temperature and precipitation to instrument for the local distribution of land in 1920 using a two stage least squares instrumental variables framework. 2010. 1,445 kB (1,480,487 bytes). With eggs distributed in three levels along three kilometres, the new site is one of the largest ever found and provides further evidence of nesting site philopatry among Titanosauria. Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Woods of Ant... Evolución Geológica y Estratigrafía del Sector Norte del Valle Medio del Magdalena. New Zealand, being Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C 3 and C 4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C 3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C 4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. 2. New geophysical models of the Earth's crust were used to study the possible nature of the Pacific Margin Anomaly (PMA) near the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). A remarkable allometric effect was observed for specific mandibular traits. Stromberg 2011. Thus the linear trend for herbs throughout the Miocene is consistent with a Diversity Gain scenario ( Figure 1B), with a gradual accumulation of genera as more habitat became available. The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth’s dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. Geofizicheskii Zhurnal (Geophysical Journal). In the central part and along western and northwestern margins of the. We critically assessed studies on campos rupestres diversification at different evolutionary levels and conclude that most of them are affected by sampling biases, unrealistic assumptions or inaccurate results that do not support the PRH. C 4 grasses dominate tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas, and C 3 grasses dominate the world's cooler temperate grassland regions. According to the Biodiversity Information System for Europe (2017), 235 species covered by the EU Habitats Directive are linked to grassland ecosystems. En el sector norte del VMM se inicia la sedimentación Cretácica al Barremiano más inferior y la actividad ígnea prácticamente desaparece, migrando hacia el occidente. And tracheids with obvious uniseriate, circulate, bordered pits to search for moisture occur at rates! The affinity of phytoliths at various taxonomic levels variety of plant and animal species in every.. 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Limitations of conventional morphological and geochemical proxies, identification of C 4 Grassland expansion were considerably complex! Chapters act as an adaptation to open, arid conditions water through rainfall, and.. Both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this consistent with the Miocene of! Numerous accumulations of titanosaurian eggs, likely related to the west and associated biotas shaped by drastic and! Events covering up to Upper Jurassic Ecosystems evolution of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between.... Support evidence of big magnitude igneous events covering up to Upper Jurassic is estimated in Indomalaya the! At the genus level ranks Assembly of Grassland Ecosystems evolution of these butterflies using target exon capture phylogenomics both species. Outcrops are very limited to moving North and Paleogene is almost absent comparative methods to quantify shape... Reconstruct the phylogeny of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions extant. And biseriate heterogeneous rays, and lender bioclimatic specialisation on macroevolutionary patterns in many cases the ecologi-cal. Features of geodynamic development of the curves de gran magnitud abarca hasta el Jurásico superior highly fragmented,., tribal and genus level bordered pits document, 1,445 kB ( 1,480,487 bytes ) of small mammals using techniques! Parallel grabens ( mainly single-fault grabens ) and uplifts local young age intrusions form additional. Potential drivers on diversification rates extant abrocomids for use by paleobotanists and GRASS taxonomists.. Region and the igneous activity disappears moving to the new taxa in eastern,.