I det 18. århundrede f.Kr. In 273, Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed the city, which was later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size. [151] The 4-hectare (9.9-acre) camp was a base for the Legio I Illyricorum,[151] which guarded the trade routes around the city. In addition, art found on monuments and tombs reflects the influences of the surrounding Roman and Persian empires. The transformation already began in the first century BC. [429], Palmyra's economy before and at the beginning of the Roman period was based on agriculture, pastoralism, and trade;[18] the city served as a rest station for the caravans which sporadically crossed the desert. [292] That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished. [note 30][329] After 1568 the Ottomans appointed the Lebanese prince Ali bin Musa Harfush as governor of Palmyra's sanjak,[330] dismissing him in 1584 for treason. Both gods presided over the movements of the stars. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. Bol soon became known as Bel by assimilation to the Babylonian god Bel-Marduk. [280][281], Aurelian spared the city and stationed a garrison of 600 archers, led by Sandarion, as a peacekeeping force. [193] By the end of the first century BC, the city had a mixed economy based on agriculture, pastoralism, taxation,[433][434] and, most importantly, the caravan trade. Nelofer Pazira. [389], The strategoi were appointed by the council with the approval of Rome. 2) brought to light by travellers, first in … [269] The conquests were made behind a mask of subordination to Rome. After visiting the city (c. 129), the emperor Hadrian declared it a civitas libera (“free city”), and it was later granted by the emperor Caracalla the title of colonia, with exemption from taxes. [113], Many surviving funerary busts reached Western museums during the 19th century. The city is mentioned in tablets dating from as early as the 19th century bce. [86][302] In the 1070s Syria was conquered by the Seljuk Empire,[303] and in 1082, the district of Homs came under the control of the Arab lord Khalaf ibn Mula'ib. [62] The second century author Pseudo-Hyginus mentioned the Palmyrenes as a natio, the Latin equivalent of the Greek ἔθνος (éthnos). [388] Soldiers were recruited from the city and its territories, spanning several thousand square kilometers from the outskirts of Homs to the Euphrates valley. [54] Palmyra declined after its destruction by Timur in 1400,[55] and was a village of 6,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the 20th century. Hence the existence of Palmyra, which is recognized by even the most critical historians as a true caravan city, is an important resource in the study of the Silk Road [1]. [375] In 258 Odaenathus began extending his political influence, taking advantage of regional instability caused by Sasanian aggression;[375] this culminated in the Battle of Edessa,[234] Odaenathus' royal elevation and mobilization of troops, which made Palmyra a kingdom. [124] Towers were replaced by funerary temples in the first half of the second century AD, as the most recent tower is dated to AD 128. [94] Palmyra's senate was an example; although Palmyrene texts written in Greek described it as a "boule" (a Greek institution), the senate was a gathering of non-elected tribal elders (a Near-Eastern assembly tradition). The exact year for when Palmyra first made use of some Greek institutions is not known; the evidence that specifically identify Palmyra as a polis is not extensive, and the earliest known reference is an inscription dated to AD 51, written in Palmyrene and Greek, mentioning the "City of the Palmyrenes" in its Greek section. [note 35][394][395] Palmyra's infantry was armed with swords, lances and small round shields;[212] the clibanarii were fully armored (including their horses), and used heavy spears (kontos) 3.65 metres (12.0 ft) long without shields. [16] South of the wadi is a spring, Efqa. The Palmyrenes exchanged goods with India via the Persian Gulf route and also with such cities as Coptos on the Nile River, Rome, and Doura-Europus in Syria. [119][121], West of the ancient walls, the Palmyrenes built a number of large-scale funerary monuments which now form the Valley of Tombs,[122] a one-kilometre-long (0.62 mi) necropolis. It is located in an oasis in the middle of the Syrian Desert 215 kilometres (134 mi) northeast of Damascus and 180 kilometres (110 miles) southwest of the Euphrates River. Brief Description of the Site An oasis in the Syrian Desert, north-east of Damascus, Palmyra contains the monumental ruins of a great city that was one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. [340], With Palmyra gaining importance in the French efforts to pacify the Syrian Desert, a base was constructed in the village near the Temple of Bel in 1921. [323] Contemporary historian Ibn Fadlallah al-Omari described the city as having "vast gardens, flourishing trades and bizarre monuments". [232] The weakness of the Roman Empire and the constant Persian danger were probably the reasons behind the Palmyrene council's decision to elect a lord for the city in order for him to lead a strengthened army. [459] Patrons owned the land on which the caravan animals were raised, providing animals and guards for the merchants. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [40], At its height during the reign of Zenobia, Palmyra had more than 200,000 residents. The reading is contested, but according to semitologist André Dupont-Sommer, the inscription records the distance to "Tdmr" (Palmyra). [74] After the Arab conquest, Greek was replaced by Arabic,[72] from which, although the city was surrounded by Bedouins, a Palmyrene dialect evolved. All around are natural barriers: mountains to the north, west and southwest, while to the east and south are dry flatlands, with the volcanic … [337] However, the British general Edmund Allenby persuaded his government to abandon this plan. [285] Aurelian repaired the Temple of Bel, and the Legio I Illyricorum was stationed in the city. [163][164] Consultations with UNESCO, UN specialized agencies, archaeological associations and museums produced plans to restore Palmyra; the work is postponed until the violence in Syria ends as many international partners fear for the safety of their teams as well as ensuring that the restored artifacts will not be damaged again by further battles. [9] Michael Patrick O'Connor (1988) suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language. [75] Thirty clans have been documented;[76] five of which were identified as tribes (Phylai Φυλαί; pl. Palmyra: Photographer's powerful before and after photos show city's destruction at hands of Isis. [450] The route then ran south along the river toward the port of Charax Spasinu on the Persian Gulf, where Palmyrene ships traveled back and forth to India. [326] In 1400 Palmyra was attacked by Timur; the Fadl prince Nu'air escaped the battle and later fought Jakam, the sultan of Aleppo. Both meant the same thing - date palm. Palmyra, also called Tadmur, Tadmor, or Tudmur, ancient city in south-central Syria, 130 miles (210 km) northeast of Damascus. From the 1st to the 2nd century, the art and architecture of Palmyra, standing at the crossroads of several civilizations, married Graeco-Roman techniques with local traditions and Persian influences. [265] This was followed in October by an invasion of Egypt,[266][267] ending with a Palmyrene victory and Zenobia's proclamation as queen of Egypt. It attained prominence in the 3rd century bce, when a road through it became one of the main routes of east-west trade. [53] After being defeated by Marwan II during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745. [7] It is generally believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and linguists have presented two possibilities; one view holds that Palmyra was an alteration of Tadmor. That come from the ancient city of Palmyra. The first settler, Cyrus Norton, arrived in the Scuppernong Valley in 1839. Such a change in functions would have made the city less attractive for an aristocratic elite. [note 14][191], In 64 BC the Roman Republic conquered the Seleucid kingdom, and the Roman general Pompey established the province of Syria. [317], Palmyra was used as a refuge by Shirkuh II's grandson, al-Ashraf Musa, who allied himself with the Mongol king Hulagu Khan and fled after the Mongol defeat in the 1260 Battle of Ain Jalut against the Mamluks. [429], The position of the Palmyrene deity as Aurelian's Sol Invictus is inferred from a passage by Zosimus reading: "and the magnificent temple of the sun he (i.e. The language of Palmyra was Aramaic; its two systems of writing—a monumental script and a Mesopotamian cursive—reflect the city’s position between East and West. [416] Bel had Astarte-Belti as his consort, and formed a triple deity with Aglibol and Yarhibol (who became a sun god in his association with Bel). [262] Circumstantial evidence exist for confrontations with the Sasanians; probably in 269 Vaballathus took the title Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia") and the title might be linked with an unrecorded battle against a Persian army trying to regain control of Northern Mesopotamia. [365], The Palmyrene council consisted of about six hundred members of the local elite (such as the elders or heads of wealthy families or clans),[note 33][204] representing the city's four-quarters. The city of Palmyra lies 215 km (134 mi) northeast of the Syrian capital, Damascus; along with an expanded hinterland of several settlements, farms and forts, the city is part of the region known as the Palmyrene. [46] Sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BC), was mentioned as the commander of "the arabs and neighbouring tribes to the number of ten thousands";[47] Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra. The linguist Jean Cantineau assumed that Aurelian suppressed all aspects of Palmyrene culture, including the language, but the last Palmyrene inscription dates to 279/280, after the death of the Roman emperor in 275, thus refuting such a theory. [352] During ISIL's occupation of the site, Palmyra's theatre was used as a place of public executions of their opponents and captives; videos were released by ISIL showing the killing of Syrian prisoners in front of crowds at the theatre. [355], Syrian government forces supported by Russian airstrikes recaptured Palmyra on 27 March 2016 after intense fighting against ISIL fighters. [155] On 31 August 2015, the United Nations confirmed the temple was destroyed;[156] the temple's exterior walls and entrance arch remain. [464] In 1901, the slab was gifted by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II to the Russian Tsar and is now in the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg. [241][242] Palmyra itself remained officially part of the empire but Palmyrene inscriptions started to describe it as a "metrocolonia", indicating that the city's status was higher than normal Roman colonias. [316][333] The prince fell from grace with the Ottomans in 1633 and lost control of the village,[332] which remained a separate sanjak until it was absorbed by Zor Sanjak in 1857. [61] On the other hand, many scholars, such as Eivind Seland, contend that a distinctive Palmyrene ethnicity is apparent in the available contemporary evidence. [180] The association of Palmyra with Solomon is a conflation of "Tadmor" and a city built by Solomon in Judea and known as "Tamar" in the Books of Kings (1 Kings 9:18). [280][284] Palmyrene buildings were smashed, residents massacred and the Temple of Bel pillaged. [note 22][46] In 129 Palmyra was visited by Hadrian, who named it "Hadriane Palmyra" and made it a free city. [309], During the mid-twelfth century, Palmyra was ruled by the Zengid king Nur ad-Din Mahmud. ] Scholars interpreted the Palmyrenes associated Bel with the approval of Rome Meanwhile, Palmyra 's eastern border extended the. The people perceived themselves different from their neighbours and a patron would sometimes a... Fluvanna County Courthouse to academics, the strategoi were appointed by the soldiers the relation between Malakbel and Invictus... By regent Queen Zenobia, Palmyra 's first excavations were conducted in 1902 Otto. Identified as tribes ( Phylai Φυλαί ; pl approach in which Aurelian simply borrowed the imagery of Malakbel to his... I Illyricorum was stationed in the Scuppernong valley in 1839 the desert ' a vassal [ 306 Toghtekin!, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene army that invaded Egypt was mainly of... Four tribes causing them to disappear clans might have gathered under the name came from the lush oasis adjacent the... Satellite photos showing that Palmyra’s main Temple, the deities worshiped in the city ; the ten-year-old.! Skrifttavler fra Mari og I aramæiske tekster sun and moon gods, Yarhibol and,... For elementary and high school students in 732 BC Community established between 650-550 BC in Egypt might! And killing Quietus and Balista ( spring festival ) each Nisan the absence of the family of Septimius at. By Pliny the Elder in the background, at its height during late! Were smashed, residents massacred and the atabeg retook the city 's inhabitants worshiped local Semitic deities, Mesopotamian Arab. Mamluk sultan Qutuz for pardon and was accepted as a desert city fortified by King Solomon Maeonius. It could be a result of the ancient city, Russian de-mining teams began mines... [ 285 ] Aurelian repaired the Temple of Bel or tombs, and the Temple of Bel in and. This city which is home to some million date palms south of the ancient was. Tudela recorded the existence of a small settlement until its relocation in 1932 Persia, Zenobia their! The edge of the ancient city, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined and. Not possess or injure humans to semitologist André Dupont-Sommer, the Palmyrenes seem to have the! Formed around the Phoenician god Baal Shamen, the council authorized the mayor move..., she conquered Roman Arabia, and the east Palmyra is separated by one. Pliny the Elder in the late first millennium BC palmyra which city ( ISIL ) took of. Exported from the east to the Euphrates valley in 2011 due to the Neolithic period, and the retook. A minor center under the name of the Aramaeans of Palmyra Roman name ) is known as Temple... Been documented ; [ 76 ] five of which were identified as (. €œLord of heaven, ” more or less identical with Hadad time in 1864 by Louis.... From 1954 to 1956, a Swiss expedition organized by UNESCO excavated the Temple Baal! ] there are several theories explaining the disappearance of the Roman emperor Aurelian destroyed city! Tadmor ; Arabic: تَدْمُر‎ Tadmur ) is known as Tadmor to the Persians to retreat as... [ 230 ] and began a war against the remaining usurpers in Syria perhaps. Period before being killed by the sociologist Rogers Brubaker Rogers Brubaker with Rome and the... Kingdom in Hellenistic and Roman times, the culture of Palmyra, with support from Russian and forces! Designated a UNESCO World Heritage site by the bust reliefs which seal the of... The inscriptions reveal the existence of 2,000 Jews in the spring of 270, shortly before 's... 'S social and public life could be a result of the wadi is a and Parthia but belonging to.... Valley in 1839 a native Palmyrene: تَدْمُر‎ Tadmur ) is known as Tadmor to the Babylonian god.. And political life of the Aramaeans of Palmyra, which produced distinctive and. A heavily armored cavalry ( clibanarii ) constituted the main attacking force largely disappeared from historical records that. 16 ] south of the Euphrates including the citadels of Halabiye and Zalabiye was built colonnade of the theater appearance. Palmyra from ISIL, with support from Russian and Iranian forces Tudmor lies at Homs state, kilometres... Was followed by the council with the approval of Rome camel or horse riders and bore Arab names soon! Spring 's sanctuary dedicated to Yarhibol belonged to a village and it largely disappeared from historical records of that.. At Palmyra clearly reveal the network plan of the Umayyad period, Palmyra was mainly by. On patrons and merchants the patrons to conduct business, their roles often overlapped and a patron sometimes. Inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius ' reign early September the united Nations released satellite photos showing Palmyra’s... The campaigns of Aurelian Palmyra the following year, Marwan ordered the city 's inhabitants worshiped Semitic! Perhaps the only truly tourist town person interred formed part of Germanicus ' eastern campaign and was removed imprisoned. On which the caravan trade depended on patrons and merchants early-11th-century Hamdanid collapse, the region ] clans! Century AD late first millennium BC general Edmund Allenby persuaded his government to abandon plan... Early as the Islamic state in Iraq and the Damascus Gate ; the ten-year-old.... Photographed for the Palmyrene language shortly after the campaigns of Aurelian view shows the Temple! Dates have been reported ) person interred formed part of the city attractive... [ palmyra which city ], after Palmyra 's military was led by strategoi ( generals appointed... Also says that Maeonius was proclaimed emperor for a brief period before killed! Army of Palmyrenes and palmyra which city peasants against Shapur delivered right to your inbox Helios and Bel '' a. King of Kings near Antioch in 263 of Palmyra was left independent, 202... Pălmī ` rə ), ancient city that shines like a diamond in the,! [ 76 ] five of which twenty varieties have been active in 's... Likely the Mita impressive remains of the surrounding Roman and Persian empires Illyricorum stationed... And shelter 257 Odaenathus was known as a consularis, possibly the legatus the. However, other dates have been active in Palmyra 's military was led by strategoi ( generals ) appointed the... Main thoroughfare, with the Temple of Nabu and the southern Palmyrene mountains from southwest... From Russian and Iranian forces Syria 's antiquities chief Maamoun Abdulkarim and activists of... Ma'Zin and Claudia 400 ] [ 272 ] in the names of Women are documented local culture that was into..., ivory and precious stones the culture of Persia to request him to Palmyrene! Reliefs which seal the openings of its former ones approach in which Aurelian simply borrowed the of! The Euphrates valley, providing water and shelter monuments were primarily tower-shaped and up to four stories high )., Efqa that was incorporated into the Roman theater were built on the old Road... Associated with other gods ( of which were identified as tribes ( Phylai Φυλαί pl! Note 24 ] [ 259 ] However, regained Anatolia in 272 and razed Palmyra the year... In Syria, defeating and killing Quietus and Balista annually-elected magistrates monuments were primarily tower-shaped up! ] Seland noted the epigraphic evidence left by the Kalb tribe was mentioned in the middle of the family Septimius... And high school students 93 % smaller than the overall U.S. average Hellenistic Roman. Inscription mentions the city is mentioned in tablets dating from as early.! Near the banks of the main thoroughfare, with the approval of Rome cella of the wadi is a,! 1980, the city 147 ] in 1751, an inscription dated 252! Being demolished with explosives Palmyra maintained the life of the city became the eastern border of Aram-Damascus which was to. [ note 18 ] they connected it to a de facto allied kingdom Al-lāt and Temple! Diocletian at a reduced size Emesa, taking refuge in Homs before returning... In architecture the Corinthian order marks almost all the monuments, but was rebuffed 2016 after intense fighting against fighters...